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Privacy Protection and Computer Forensics, Second Edition

Privacy Protection and Computer Forensics, Second Edition By Michael Caloyannides Hardcover / October 2004 / 1580538304 Contents Introduction 1.Computer Forensics 1.1 What is computer forensics. 1.2 Why is computer forensics of vital interest to you. 1.2.1 As an employee 1.2.2 As an employer or corporate executive 1.2.3 As a law enforcement official 1.2.4 As an individual 1.2.5 As a lawyer for the defense 1.2.6 As an insurance company 1.2.7 As a user of others’ computers 1.3 If you have done nothing illegal, you have nothing to fear: not true anywhere! 1.4 Computer forensics 1.4.1 User rights to privacy. 1.4.2 The forensics investigator must know up front 1.4.3 Forensics is deceptively simple but requires vast expertise 1.4.4 Computer forensics top-level procedure 1.4.5 Forensics specifics 1.4.6 Digital evidence is often evidence of nothing Selected bibliography 2 2.Locating Your Sensitive Data in Your Computer 2.1 Deleting does not delete—what does. 2.1.1 General 2.1.2 Disk wiping 2.1.3 File- and disk-wiping software 2.1.4 Magnetic microscopy forensic examination of disks 2.2 Where is the sensitive data hiding. 2.2.1 Cluster tips or slack 2.2.2 Free space 2.2.3 The swap file 2.2.4 Spool and temporary files 2.2.5 Forensics on nonmagnetic disks 2.2.6 History files 2.2.7 Data in the registry files 2.2.8 Data from sloppy use of personal encryption software 2.2.9 Nonvolatile memory 2.3 The swap file as a source of forensic data 2.3.1 General 2.3.2 Securely wiping the swap file 2.4 The Registry as a source of forensic data 2.4.1 Why is the Registry a major source of forensic evidence. 2.4.2 Where is all this private information hiding in the Registry. 2.4.3 Backing up the Registry and restoring a corrupted one 2.4.4 Cleaning up sensitive data in the Registry Reference 3 3.Specialized Forensics Applications 3.1 Digital watermarking 3.2 The British RIP Act and the US Carnivore (DCS1000) Selected bibliography 4 4.How Can Sensitive Data Be Stolen from One’s Computer. 4.1 Physical possession of one’s computer 4.2 Temporary physical access to one’s computer 4.3 Commercial hardware keystroke loggers 4.4 Commercial software keystroke loggers 4.5 Going online 4.5.1 By one’s ISP or by anyone having compromised the ISP’s security 4.5.2 By a legal or an illegal telephone tap 4.5.3 By remote Web sites that one accesses 4.6 Spyware in your computer 4.6.1 By commercial spyware and adware 4.7 van Eck radiation using commercially available systems 4.7.1 General 4.7.2 Protective measures 4.7.3 Optical emanations and their interception 4.8 Being on a network, cable modem, or xDSL modem 4.9 Other means 4.10 Insertion of incriminating data in your computer by others 4.11 Security protection steps that don’t work well enough 4.11.1 The fallacy of CMOS password protection 4.11.2 The fallacy of password protection offered by popularcommercial software 4.11.3 The fallacy of protection by hiding files from view 4.11.4 The fallacy of protection by hiding data in the slack 4.11.5 The fallacy of protection by placing data in normally unused locations of a disk 4.11.6 The fallacy of protecting data by repartitioning a disk for a smaller capacity than the disk really has 4.11.7 The fallacy of protection through password-protected disk access 4.11.8 The fallacy of protection through the use of booby-trap software 4.11.9 The fallacy that overwriting a file removes all traces of its existence 4.11.10 The fallacy of encryption protection 4.11.11 Other protection fallacies that don’t deliver Selected bibliography References 5 5.Why Computer Privacy and Anonymity. 5.1 Anonymity 5.1.1 Practical anonymity 5.2 Privacy 5.2.1 You cannot trust TRUSTe. 5.2.2 Is privacy a right. 5.2.3 The impact of technology on privacy Selected bibliography 6 6.Practical Measures For Protecting Sensitive Information 6.1 Installing secure Windows 6.2 Recommended best practices 6.2.1 If using Windows NT 6.2.2 If using Windows 2000 6.2.3 If using Windows XP 6.2.4 Heroic protective measures regardless of the version of Windows 6.2.5 Last but not least 6.3 Additional privacy threats and countermeasures 6.3.1 Individually serial-numbered documents 6.3.2 Online activation and online snooping by software 6.3.3 Microsoft documents that call home 6.3.4 The NetBIOS and other threats from unneeded network services 6.3.5 TCPA/Palladium 6.3.6 The vulnerability of backups 6.4 Protecting sensitive data on hard disks 6.4.1 Full disk encryption 6.4.2 Encrypting disk partitions Reference 7 7.Basic Protection from Computer Data Theft Online 7.1 Protection from which of many online threats. 7.2 Installation of Windows for secure online operation 7.3 Online security threats and issues 7.3.1 Web browser hijacking 7.3.2 The romantic e-card and related con schemes 7.3.3 E-mail bombs 7.4 Software to enhance online security 7.4.1 Junkbuster 7.4.2 SurfSecret 7.4.3 Assorted cleaners of browsers 7.5 Basic do’s and don’ts 7.5.1 Don’t’s 7.5.2 Do’s 8 8.Practical Measures for Online Computer Activities 8.1 Netscape Navigator/Communicator 8.2 Microsoft Internet Explorer 8.3 Desirable e-mail software configuration and modifications 8.3.1 Free Web-based e-mail offers that require JavaScript: don’t! 8.3.2 Outlook and Outlook Express 8.3.3 Eudora e-mail software 8.4 Secure e-mail conduct online 8.4.1 Self-protecting e-mail 8.4.2 Accessing e-mail from anywhere on Earth 8.5 E-mail forensics and traces: the anonymity that isn’t 8.5.1 Tracking suspect e-mail 8.5.2 Sending anonymous e-mail: anonymous remailers 8.5.3 General network tracing tools 9 9.Advanced Protection from Computer Data Theft Online 9.1 Virus/Trojan/worm protection 9.2 Protection from keyloggers 9.2.1 Protection from keystroke-capturing software 9.2.2 Protection from keystroke-capturing hardware 9.3 Protection from commercial adware/spyware 9.4 Protection from Web bugs: an insidious and far-reaching threat 9.5 Using encrypted connections for content protection 9.6 Using proxy servers for anonymity 9.7 Using encrypted connections to ISPs for content protection 9.7.1 SSL 9.8 SSH 9.9 The failed promise of peer-to-peer clouds 9.10 Caller ID traps to avoid 9.11 Traps when connecting online from a cellular phone 9.12 Traps when using FTP 9.13 Using instant messaging schemes 9.14 Pitfalls of online banking 9.15 Secure Usenet usage 9.15.1 Anonymity from other Usenet readers 9.15.2 Anonymity from one’s in-country ISP 9.15.3 Usenet privacy in oppressive regimes 9.16 Ports to protect from 9.17 Sniffers 9.18 Firewalls 9.18.1 Personal software-based firewalls 9.19 Software that calls home Reference 10 10.Encryption 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Availability and use of encryption 10.2.1 Old-fashioned encryption 10.2.2 Conventional (symmetric) encryption 10.2.3 Public-key encryption 10.2.4 Elliptic-curve encryption 10.2.5 Voice encryption online 10.3 Attempts to control against encryption 10.4 Legal issues 10.4.1 Crypto laws around the world 10.4.2 Can encryption bans work. 10.5 Societal issues 10.6 Technical issues 10.7 Countermeasures 10.8 State support for encryption 10.9 The future of encryption 10.10 Quantum cryptography 10.10.1 Quantum computing 10.11 DNA-based encryption 10.12 Comments Selected bibliography References 11 11.Practical Encryption 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Entire-disk encryption 11.3 Encrypting for e-mail: PGP 11.3.1 How PGP works 11.3.2 Do’s and don’ts of PGP installation and use 11.3.3 The need for long public keys 11.3.4 The man-in-the-middle problem 11.3.5 DH or RSA. 11.3.6 DSS. 11.3.7 Selecting the Symmetric Encryption Algorithm 11.3.8 A minor flaw in PGP 11.3.9 PGP weaknesses 11.3.10 Other uses of PGP 11.4 Encrypting one’s own files: encrypted disk partitions 11.5 Steganography 11.5.1 Practical considerations in steganography 11.5.2 Detecting steganography: steganalysis 11.5.3 Other ways that steganography can be detected 11.5.4 Recommendations for maintaining privacy through steganography 11.6 Password cracking 11.7 File integrity authenticity: digital digests 11.8 Emergencies 11.8.1 Protecting sensitive data from a repressive regime 11.8.2 A word of caution 11.8.3 Getting discovered as a desirable persona Selected bibliography References 12 12.Link Encryption: VPNs 12.1 Split tunneling 12.2 IPsec 12.3 Summary Selected bibliography 13 13.Security of Wireless Connectivity: Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 13.1 Background 13.2 The 802.11 technologies 13.2.1 WEP insecurity 13.2.2 War driving and war chalking 13.2.3 Using Wi-Fi while traveling 13.2.4 WPA 13.2.5 Securing 802.11 13.3 Bluetooth wireless link security issues 13.3.1 Bluetooth security threats 13.3.2 Recommended steps for enhancing security of Bluetooth devices Selected bibliography 14 14.Other Computer-Related Threats to Privacy 14.1 Commercial GPS devices 14.2 RF ID devices 14.3 Modern vehicles’ black boxes 14.4 Cell phones 14.5 Prepaid calling cards 14.6 Credit cards 14.7 Intelligent mail 14.8 Fax machines and telephone answering machines 14.9 Office and home copiers 14.10 Frequent-anything clubs 14.11 Consumer electronics References 15 15.Biometrics: Privacy Versus Nonrepudiation 15.1 Are they effective. It depends 15.2 Biometrics can be easily spoofed 15.3 Identification is not synonymous with security 15.4 Societal issues References 16 16.Legal Issues 16.1 Software agreements that shift the legal liability to the user 16.2 Cyber–SLAPP suits 16.3 E-mail 16.4 Copyright 16.4.1 U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 16.4.2 The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act 16.5 Can one be forced to reveal a decryption key. 16.6 Why is electronic evidence better than paper evidence. 16.7 Civil legal discovery issues 16.8 International policy on computer-related crime 16.9 What is computer crime. 16.10 What can a business do to protect itself. 16.11 Criminal evidence collection issues 16.11.1 Collection 16.11.2 Handling 16.12 Federal guidelines for searching and seizing computers 16.13 Destruction of electronic evidence 16.14 U.S.–European data-privacy disputes 16.15 New international computer crime treaty 16.16 The post–September 11 reality 16.17 The sky is the limit—or is it the courts. References About the Author Index

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