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Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, 2nd Edition

Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, 2nd Edition By Eoghan Casey Paperback / February 2004 / 0121631044 Table of Contents Part 1 Chapter 1: Digital Evidence and Computer Crime 1.1) Digital Evidence 1.2) Increasing Awareness of Digital Evidence 1.3) Challenging Aspects of Digital Evidence 1.4) Following the Cybertrail 1.5) Challenging Aspects of the Cybertrail 1.6) Forensic Science and Digital Evidence 1.7) Summary Chapter 2: History and Terminology of Computer Crime Investigation 2.1) Brief History of Computer Crime Investigation 2.2) Evolution of Investigative Tools 2.3) Language of Computer Crime Investigation 2.3.1) The Role of Computers in Crime 2.4) Summary Chapter 3: Technology and Law Part A: Technology and Law – A United States Perspective Robert Dunne A.1) Jurisdiction A.2) Pornography and Obscenity A.3) Privacy A.4) Copyrights and the “Theft” of Digital Intellectual Property Part B: Computer Misuse in America Eoghan Casey Part C: Technology and Criminal Law – A European perspective Tessa Robinson C.1) Overview of Criminal Offenses C.2) Search and Seizure C.3) Jurisdiction and Extradition C.4) Penalties C.5) Privacy C.6) Summary Chapter 4: The Investigative Process Eoghan Casey and Gary Palmer 4.1) The Role of Digital Evidence 4.2) Investigative Methodology 4.2.1) Accusation or Incident Alert 4.2.2) Assessment of Worth 4.2.3) Incident/Crime Scene Protocols 4.2.4) Identification or Seizure 4.2.5) Preservation 4.2.6) Recovery 4.2.7) Harvesting 4.2.8) Reduction 4.2.9) Organization and Search 4.2.10) Analysis 4.2.11) Reporting 4.2.12) Persuasion and Testimony 4.3) Summary Chapter 5: Investigative Reconstruction Eoghan Casey and Brent Turvey 5.1) Equivocal Forensic Analysis 5.1.1) Reconstruction 5.1.2) Temporal Analysis 5.1.3) Relational Analysis 5.1.4) Functional Analysis 5.2) Victimology 5.2.1) Risk Assessment 5.3) Crime Scene Characteristics 5.3.1) Method of Approach and Control 5.3.2) Offender Action, Inaction and Reaction 5.4) Evidence Dynamic and Introduction of Error 5.5) Reporting 5.6) Summary Chapter 6: Modus Operandi, Motive & Technology Brent Turvey 6.1) Axes to Pathological Criminals, and Other Unintended Consequences 6.2) Modus Operandi 6.3) Technology and Modus Operandi 6.4) Motive and Technology 6.4.1) Power Reassurance (Compensatory) 6.4.2) Power Assertive (Entitlement) 6.4.3) Anger Retaliatory (Anger or Displaced) 6.4.4) Anger Excitation (Sadistic) 6.4.5) Profit Oriented 6.5) Current Technologies 6.5.1) Computer Virus 6.5.2) Public Email Discussion List 6.6) Summary Chapter 7: Digital Evidence in the Courtroom 7.1) Admissibility – Warrants 7.2) Authenticity and Reliability 7.3) Casey’s Certainty Scale 7.4) Best Evidence 7.5) Direct versus Circumstantial Evidence 7.6) Hearsay 7.6.1) Hearsay Exceptions 7.7) Scientific Evidence 7.8) Presenting Digital Evidence 7.9) Summary Part 2: Computers Chapter 8: Computer Basics for Digital Evidence Examiners 8.1) A Brief History of Computers 8.2) Basic Operation of Computers 8.2.1) Central Processing Unit (CPU) 8.2.2) Basic Input and Output System (BIOS) 8.2.3) Power-on Self Test and CMOS Configuration Tool 8.2.4) Disk Boot 8.3) Representation of Data 8.4) Storage Media and Data Hiding 8.5) File Systems and Location of Data 8.6) Overview of Encryption 8.6.1) Private Key Encryption 8.6.2) Public Key Encryption 8.6.3) Pretty Good Privacy 8.7) Summary Chapter 9: Applying Forensic Science to Computers 9.1) Authorization and Preparation 9.2) Identification 9.2.1) Recognizing Hardware 9.2.2) Identifying Digital Evidence 9.3) Documentation 9.3.1) Message Digests and Digital Signatures 9.4) Collection and Preservation 9.4.1) Collecting and Preserving Hardware 9.4.2) Collecting and Preserving Digital Evidence 9.5) Examination and Analysis 9.5.1) Filtering/Reduction 9.5.2) Class/Individual Characteristics and Evaluation of Source 9.5.3) Data Recovery/Salvage 9.6) Reconstruction 9.6.1) Functional Analysis 9.6.2) Relational Analysis 9.6.3) Temporal Analysis 9.6.4) Digital Stratigraphy 9.7) Reporting 9.8) Summary Chapter 10: Forensic Examination of Windows Systems 10.1) Windows Evidence Acquisition Boot Disk 10.2) File Systems 10.3) Overview of Digital Evidence Processing Tools 10.4) Data Recovery 10.4.1) Windows-based Recovery Tools 10.4.2) Unix-based Recovery Tools 10.4.3) File Carving with Windows 10.4.4) Dealing with Password Protection and Encryption 10.5) Log Files 10.6) File System Traces 10.7) Registry 10.8) Internet Traces 10.8.1) Web Browsing 10.8.2) Usenet Access 10.8.3) E-mail 10.8.4) Other Applications 10.8.5) Network Storage 10.9) Program Analysis 10.10) Summary Chapter 11: Forensic Examination of Unix Systems 11.1) Unix Evidence Acquisition Boot Disk 11.2) File Systems 11.3) Overview of Digital Evidence Processing Tools 11.4) Data Recovery 11.4.1) Unix-based Tools 11.4.2) Windows-based Tools 11.4.3) File Carving with Unix 11.4.4) Dealing with Password Protection and Encryption 11.5) Log Files 11.6) File System 11.7) Internet Traces 11.7.1) Web Browsing 11.7.2) E-mail 11.7.3) Network Traces 11.8) Summary Chapter 12: Forensic Examination of Macintosh Systems 12.1) File Systems 12.2) Overview of Digital Evidence Processing Tools 12.3) Data Recovery 12.4) File System Traces 12.5) Internet Traces 12.5.1) Web Activity 12.5.2) E-mail 12.5.3) Network Storage 12.6) Summary Chapter 13: Forensic Examination of Handheld Devices 13.1) Overview of Handheld Devices 13.1.1) Memory 13.1.2) Data Storage and Manipulation 13.1.3) Exploring Palm Memory 13.2) Collection and Examination of Handheld Devices 13.2.1) Palm OS 13.2.2) Windows CE Devices 13.2.3) RIM Blackberry 13.2.4) Mobile Phones 13.3) Dealing with Password Protection and Encryption 13.4) Related Sources of Digital Evidence 13.4.1) Removable Media 13.4.2) Neighborhood Data 13.5) Summary Part 3: Networks Chapter 14: Network Basics for Digital Evidence Examiners 14.1) A Brief History of Computer Networks 14.2) Technical overview of networks 14.3) Network Technologies 14.3.1) Attached Resource Computer Network (ARCNET) 14.3.2) Ethernet 14.3.3) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) 14.3.4) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 14.3.5) IEEE 802.11 (Wireless) 14.3.6) Cellular Networks 14.3.7) Satellite Networks 14.4) Connecting Networks Using Internet Protocols 14.4.1) Physical and Data-Link Layers (Layers 1 & 2) 14.4.2) Network and Transport Layers (Layers 3 & 4) 14.4.3) Session Layer (Layer 5) 14.4.4) Presentation Layer (Layer 6) 14.4.5) Application Layer (Layer 7) 14.4.6) Synopsis of the OSI Reference Model 14.5) Summary Chapter 15: Applying Forensic Science to Networks 15.1) Preparation and Authorization 15.2) Identification 15.3) Documentation, Collection, and Preservation 15.4) Filtering and Data Reduction 15.5) Class/Individual Characteristics and Evaluation of Source 15.6) Evidence Recovery 15.7) Investigative Reconstruction 15.7.1) Behavioral Evidence Analysis 15.8) Summary Chapter 16: Digital Evidence on Physical and Data-Link Layers 16.1) Ethernet 16.1.1) 10Base5 16.1.2) 10/100/1000BaseT 16.1.3) CSMA/CD 16.2) Linking the Data-Link and Network Layers—Encapsulation 16.2.1) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 16.2.2) Point to Point Protocol and Serial Line Internet Protocol 16.3) Ethernet versus ATM Networks 16.4) Documentation, Collection, and Preservation 16.4.1) Sniffer Placement 16.4.2) Sniffer Configuration 16.4.3) Other Source of MAC Addresses 16.5) Analysis Tools and Techniques 16.5.1) Keyword Searches 16.5.2) Filtering and Classification 16.5.3) Reconstruction 16.6) Summary Chapter 17: Digital Evidence on Network and Transport Layers 17.1) TCP/IP 17.1.1) Internet Protocol and Cellular Data Networks 17.1.2) IP Addresses 17.1.3) Domain Name System 17.1.4) IP Routing 17.1.5) Servers and Ports 17.1.6) Connection Management 17.1.7) Abuses of TCP/IP 17.2) Setting up A Network 17.2.1) Static versus Dynamic IP Address Assignment 17.2.2) Protocols for Assigning IP Addresses 17.3) TCP/IP Related Digital Evidence 17.3.1) Authentication Logs 17.3.2) Application Logs 17.3.3) Operating System Logs 17.3.4) Network Device Logs 17.3.5) State Tables 17.3.6) Random Access Memory Contents 17.4) Summary Chapter 18: Digital Evidence on the Internet 18.1) Role of the Internet in Criminal Investigations 18.2) Internet Services: Legitimate versus Criminal Uses 18.2.1) The World Wide Web 18.2.2) E-mail 18.2.3) Newsgroups 18.2.4) Synchronous Chat Networks 18.2.5) Peer-To-Peer Networks and Instant Messaging 18.3) Using the Internet as an Investigative Tool 18.3.1) Search Engines 18.3.2) Online Databases (the Invisible Web) 18.3.3) Usenet Archive versus Actual Newgroups 18.4) Online Anonymity and Self-Protection 18.4.1) Overview of Exposure 18.4.2) Proxies 18.4.3) IRC “bots” 18.4.5) Encryption 18.4.5) Anonymous and Pseudonymous E-mail and Usenet 18.4.6) Freenet 18.4.7) Anonymous Cash 18.5) E-mail Forgery and Tracking 18.5.1) Interpreting E-mail Headers 18.6) Usenet Forgery and Tracking 18.6.1) Interpreting Usenet Headers 18.7) Searching and Tracking on IRC 18.8) Summary Part 4: Investigating Computer Crime Chapter 19: Investigating Computer Intrusions 19.1) How Computer Intruders Operate 19.2) Investigating Intrusions 19.2.1) Processes as a Source of Evidence (Windows) 19.2.2) Processes as a Source of Evidence (Unix) 19.2.3) Windows Registry 19.2.4) Acquisition over Network 19.2.5) Classification, Comparison, and Evaluation of Source 19.3) Investigative Reconstruction 19.3.1) Parallels between Arson and Intrusion Investigations 19.3.2) Crime Scene Characteristics 19.3.3) Automated and Dynamic Modus Operandi 19.3.4) Examining the Intruder’s Computer 19.4) Detailed Case Example 19.5) Summary Chapter 20: Sex Offenders on the Internet Eoghan Casey, Monique Mattei Ferraro, Michael McGrath 20.1) Window to the World 20.2) Legal Considerations 20.3) Identifying and Processing Digital Evidence 20.4) Investigating Online Sexual Offenders 20.4.1) Undercover Investigation 20.5) Investigative Reconstruction 20.5.1) Analyzing Sex Offenders 20.5.2) Analyzing Victim Behavior 20.5.3) Crime Scene Characteristics 20.5.4) Motivation 20.6) Summary Chapter 21: Investigating Cyberstalking 21.1) How Cyberstalkers Operate 21.1.1) Acquiring Victims 21.1.2) Anonymity and Surreptitious Monitoring 21.1.3) Escalation and Violence 21.2) Investigating Cyberstalking 21.2.1) Interviews 21.2.2) Victimology 21.2.3) Risk Assessment 21.2.4) Search 21.2.5) Crime Scene Characteristics 21.2.6) Motivation 21.3) Cyberstalking Case Example 21.4) Summary Chapter 22: Digital Evidence as Alibi 22.1) Investigating an Alibi 22.2) Time as Alibi 22.3) Location as Alibi 22.4) Summary Part 4: Guidelines Chapter 23: Handling the Digital Crime Scene 23.1) Identification or Seizure 23.1.1) When the Entire Computer is Required 23.2) Preservation 23.2.1) If Only a Portion of the Digital Evidence on a Computer is Required 23.2.2) Sample Preservation Form Chapter 24: Digital Evidence Examination Guidelines Eoghan Casey and Troy Larson 24.1) Preparation 24.2) Processing 24.2.1) DOS/Windows Command Line – Maresware 24.2.2) Windows GUI – EnCase 24.2.3) Windows GUI - FTK 24.3) Identify and Process Special Files 24.4) Summary

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